Long-term poor control of diabetes mellitus, leads to diabetic retinopathy also known as diabetic eye disease in which the damage occurs to retina and is a leading cause of blindness. Retinal arteries become narrow which reduces the retinal blood flow, dysfunction of the neurons of the inner retina are the earliest changes detected in retina and in later stages there may be changes in the function of the outer retina, which may affect the visual function and the barrier which protects the retina from many substances in the blood called blood retinal barrier got affected leading to the leakage of blood constituents into the retinal neuropile. Diagnosis includes Visual Acuity Test, Pupil Dilation, Opthalmoscopy, Fundus Fluorescein Angiography(FFA), Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT). Most of the people with diabetes have Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy(NPDR), as it is the early stage of diabetic retinopathy and in this the retinal blood vessels swell and leak, that leads to loss of vision. The advanced stage of diabetic retinopathy is the Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy(PDR), in this new retinal blood vessels grow(neovascularization), these new blood vessels bleed. If they bleed a lot, vision is blocked.
- Proliferative Diabetic Retinoapthy
- Non- Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy